Solar Flux Proxies for Earth, Mars, and Venus

F10.7 data

It is often useful to have some measure of the solar energy input into a planetary atmosphere for the purpose of determining whether atmospheric phenomena are correlated with solar activity. One useful proxy for solar activity is the solar decimetric radio flux, F10.7, which has been measured daily at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory near Pinticton, Canada every day at solar noon for over sixty years. More recently, the solar energy input into the Earth’s atmosphere has been measured directly from above the atmosphere by experiments such as NASA’s TIMED/SEE.

Solar energy input into the Venus and Mars atmosphere is more difficult to determine due to a lack of instruments observing the Sun from these planets. Sometimes Venus or Mars is on the same side of the Solar system as the Earth, making extrapolation of the Solar EUV flux straightforward; at other times the planets are on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth and information gathered there is not as useful. NASA’s MAVEN mission will be the first to attempt measurement of the solar input and atmospheric response simultaneously at another planet (Mars). Until it arrives one way to extrapolate from information gathered at Earth to Mars and Venus was described by Mitchell et. al. (2001). The technique uses the positions of the planets to determine when the side of the Sun facing Mars and Venus most recently faced the Earth, and obtains the solar flux measurements made on Earth at that time. A 26-day solar rotation period is assumed, and planetary positions are obtained from JPL Horizons.

The follwing data are presented, scaled and phase-shifted to Venus and Mars from the Earth. For each line in the TIMED/SEE database, as well as the single-pixel lyman alpha values and the total solar flux less than 90 nm, data are presented for the entire time span of the TIMED/SEE experiment from January 22, 2002 through the end of 2013. Solat F10.7 data are presented year-by-year starting in 1948 and ending with 2013. In the plots which accompany the data files, values for all three planets are presented: Venus in yellow, Earth in blue, and Mars in red.

Many thanks to Dave Brain for compiling and hosting a subset of this database.



As usual, you should check with the TIMED/SEE team before relying on their data for publication purposes. For example: while it is included in the phase-shifted and scaled database below, the H I 121.6 nm line value is inaccurate due to poor subtraction of the broad wings of the line by the Level 3 processing routine. The single-pixel value at 121.5 nm is much more accurate, and should capture the solar Lyman alpha line to within 1-2%. Caveats on other data products may apply as well.

Complete TIMED/SEE database scaled and phase-shifted: data

Single Pixel Lyman Alpha: plot/data

Total Solar Flux < 90nm: plot/data

Fe XV 28.4 nm: plot/data

He II 30.4 nm: plot/data

Fe XVI 33.5 nm: plot/data

Fe XVI 36.1 nm: plot/data

Mg IX 36.8 nm: plot/data

Fe XV 41.7 nm: plot/data

Ne VII 46.5 nm: plot/data

Si XII 49.9 nm: plot/data

Si XII 52.1 nm: plot/data

He I 53.7 nm: plot/data

O IV 55.4 nm: plot/data

He I 58.4 nm: plot/data

Mg X 61.0 nm: plot/data

O V 63.0 nm: plot/data

O III 70.4 nm: plot/data

N IV 76.5 nm: plot/data

Ne VIII 77.0 nm: plot/data

Ne VIII 78.0 nm: plot/data

O IV 78.8 nm: plot/data

O II 83.4 nm: plot/data

H I 93.8 nm: plot/data

H I 95.0 nm: plot/data

C III 97.7 nm: plot/data

H I 102.6 nm: plot/data

O VI 103.2 nm: plot/data

O VI 103.8 nm: plot/data

N II 108.5 nm: plot/data

H I 121.6 nm: plot/data

O I 130.4 nm: plot/data

C II 133.5 nm: plot/data

Si IV 139.4 nm: plot/data

Si IV 140.3 nm: plot/data

C IV 154.9 nm: plot/data

C I 156.1 nm: plot/data

He II 164.0 nm: plot/data

C I 165.7 nm: plot/data

Si II 180.8 nm: plot/data

Si II 181.7 nm: plot/data


F10.7 data

Complete F10.7 database scaled and phase-shifted: data

2013: plot/data

2012: plot/data

2011: plot/data

2010: plot/data

2009: plot/data

2008: plot/data

2007: plot/data

2006: plot/data

2005: plot/data

2004: plot/data

2003: plot/data

2002: plot/data

2001: plot/data

2000: plot/data

1999: plot/data

1998: plot/data

1997: plot/data

1996: plot/data

1995: plot/data

1994: plot/data

1993: plot/data

1992: plot/data

1991: plot/data

1990: plot/data

1989: plot/data

1988: plot/data

1987: plot/data

1986: plot/data

1985: plot/data

1984: plot/data

1983: plot/data

1982: plot/data

1981: plot/data

1980: plot/data

1979: plot/data

1978: plot/data

1977: plot/data

1976: plot/data

1975: plot/data

1974: plot/data

1973: plot/data

1972: plot/data

1971: plot/data

1970: plot/data

1969: plot/data

1968: plot/data

1967: plot/data

1966: plot/data

1965: plot/data

1964: plot/data

1963: plot/data

1962: plot/data

1961: plot/data

1960: plot/data

1959: plot/data

1958: plot/data

1957: plot/data

1956: plot/data

1955: plot/data

1954: plot/data

1953: plot/data

1952: plot/data

1951: plot/data

1950: plot/data

1949: plot/data

1948: plot/data